Facts, Fads and predictions about the joint venture of Human Mind and AI algorithms
“Humans have dreams, computers don’t! Computer programmes can be replicated easily, human minds not at all!”
We are living in an extraordinary time; our world is in the midst of digitalisation that is already shifting towards a world dominated by virtualisation and artificial intelligence. Many agree that people will work and live in collaboration with “intelligent1 machines.” Although Chaos Theory is able to describe this imminent change as strange distortions (attractors) and disruptive contextual changes, what is most profound is that we are at the dawn of a deep transformation with historical dimensions creating the emergence of shifts in societal cognition.
This imminent change will literally turn things on its head as we know it. Everything seems to be put upside down. The deep transformation is still in process. We are still in the phase of transition and probably will be there for the next 25 years or so. Presently, we are busy with the challenges of globalisation and digitalisation, but within the next decade we will have to cope with the challenges of virtualisation and AI.
The virtualised world equipped with artificial intelligence will never be the same. We have started a disruptive journey into the big unknown. For virtualisation we are aiming at “seamlessness2” of “our reality” with the “virtual reality”. In terms of artificial intelligence, we still have to figure out what we mean by the construct of “intelligence.”
Human beings are psycho-physiological entities operating with different processes on different levels: reason, imagination, emotions, feelings, and instincts. Beside the physiological processes, there are conscious (i.e., controlled, instinctive, automatic which employs routines) processes. Humans are communicating constantly whether they be verbal, visual, through body language or other behavioural signs. Words are based on concepts and are loaded with meanings and emotions. Most of human communication is subjective and colored by our worldview, the Zeitgeist and our cultural environment. In addition, our perceptions are heavily distorted by prejudices and subjective worldviews. By contrast, machines are not conscious, non-emotional and ruled by algorithms created by humans.
Human behaviours and realities are based on genetic programming, life experiences, role models and education. Humans are all children of the Zeitgeist; even science is affected by it3. The history of science and ideas is the best proof to support this argument.
Science is the most objective way to look at the world. But it is also biased by its very rudimentary assumptions and foundations. We tend to see the world and universe through the lens of the four-dimensional macro cosmos. Meanings are contextual and we are operating within different theoretical frameworks. Today we can see the edge of contemporary science, but most of us are not able to move beyond it. It seems to be reserved for future generations.
So far humanity has been relying on individuals and groups of individuals to find solutions for our problems. Today we are able to leverage the intelligence of large groups of people and are approaching the possibility of using the collective intelligence of our entire humanity for this purpose. However, with the development of artificial intelligence, we can see an additional level that searches and finds convenient solutions; it is the collaboration of humans with intelligent programmes and machines.
The collaboration of humans with smart machines and programmes creates new solutions way beyond our imagination, leading to meaningful life quality enhancing products, services and experiences! The objective of this paper is to explore several levels of co-existence, cooperation and co-creation of humans and intelligent machines that we denominate collaborative intelligence.
Plainly speaking, digital platforms4 enable us to leverage collective human intelligence. The first attempt of collaboration and co-creation of humans and intelligent machines is popping up in the Internet of Things daily. Soon we will see the emergence of “Meta-Intelligence”: it will represent a merger of human intelligence with AI, leveraging collective intelligence with the computational power of intelligent machines, the Internet of Things, the cloud and virtual reality. This will be the era of the Meta-Mind, which will lead us towards the “Fusion-Mind”, when advancements in technology will allow us to merge an enhanced human mind with “Advanced General Artificial Intelligence” (hereafter AGAI) based entities. We argue that this will be a process of “symbiosis” rather than replacement.
About the Authors
Mario Raich is a Swiss futurist, book author and global management consultant. He was a Senior Executive in several global financial organisations, and Invited Professor to some leading business schools like ESADE (Barcelona). He is the co-founder and Chairman of e-Merit Academy (www.emeritacademy.com), and Managing Director for the Innovation Services at Frei+Raich Ltd. in Zurich. In addition he is a member of the advisory board of the Global Future of Work Foundation in Barcelona. Currently he is researching the impact of Cyber-Reality and Artificial Intelligence on society, education, business and work.
Simon L. Dolan is currently the president of the Global Future of Work Foundation (www.globalfutureofwork.com). He used to be the Future of Work Chair at ESADE Business School in Barcelona, and before that he taught for many years at McGill and Montreal Universities (Canada), Boston and University of Colorado (U.S.). He is a prolific author with over 70 books on themes connected with managing people, culture reengineering, values and coaching. His full c.v. can be seen at: www.simondolan.com
Claudio Cisullo is a Swiss-based serial entrepreneur and investor. He is the founder and Chairman of CC Trust, a family office invested across the biotech, leisure, pharmaceuticals, professional services, real estate and technology sectors. Among his most recent investment is Chain IQ Group, a globally active provider of procurement services.
Bonnie A. Richley is the Co-Founder and Chief Design and Innovation Officer for Interaction Science, LLC. She previously was an Associate Professor and Chair/Program Director for the Department of Business and Entrepreneurship at Chatham University, the AVP of HR and Asst Professor at Case Western Reserve University. Her work involves positive organisation development with expertise in Appreciative Inquiry; executive coaching as a trainer and master coach; and adult learning theories and competency development.
1. “Intelligent”, also “smart” machines or programs is used for artificial intelligence-based machines resp programs
2. We are using “seamlessness” with the meaning of seamless transition and equal to, but not the same.
3. Meaning of Zeitgeist. Scholars have long maintained that each era has a unique spirit, a nature or climate that sets it apart from all other epochs. In German, such a spirit is known as “Zeitgeist,” from the German words Zeit, meaning “time,” and Geist, meaning “spirit”or “ghost.” Some writers and artists assert that the true zeitgeist of an era cannot be known until it is over, and several have declared that only artists or philosophers can adequately explain it. We don’t know if that’s true, but we do know that “zeitgeist” has been a useful addition to the English language since at least 1835 https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/zeitgeist
4. A digital platform refers to the software or hardware of a website allowing for the interaction of its users, https://www.igi-global.com/dictionary/digital-platform/55829
5. Discussed by Raich and Dolan, in Beyond Business and Society in Transformation, 2008
6. See: Cyber Realities: where we are now at: http://www.alliant.com/Risk-Solutions/Documents/Cyber_Realities_No_1.pdf
7. Daniel Faggella, Enterprise Adoption of Artificial Intelligence – When it Does and Doesn’t Make Sense, https://emerj.com/ai-executive-guides/enterprise-adoption-of-artificial-intelligence/?utm_term=&utm_medium=enterprise-adoption-of-artificial-intelligence&utm_campaign=General-Autoresponder-Email-2&utm_source=email&utm_content=&_ke=eyJrbF9lbWFpbCI6ICJtYXJpb0BlbWVyaXRhY2FkZW15LmNvbSIsICJrbF9jb21wYW55X2lkIjogIk1qeFpxZyJ9
8. Mario Raich, Dave Ulrich, Simon Dolan, Claudio Cisullo, Insights into the transformation of business in the Cyber-Age, The European Business Review – March-April 2018, https://www.europeanbusinessreview.com/insights-into-the-transformation-of-business-in-the-cyber-age/
9. Raich M., Eisler R., Dolan S.L. Cyberness: The Future reinvented. Amazon.com 2014.
10. Mario Raich et alia, op. cit. The European Business Review – March-April 2018
11. Extended Reality (XR) Paul Milgram has introduced the concept of the “reality-virtuality continuum”. XR is a superset which includes the entire spectrum from “the complete real” to “the complete virtual”
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extended_reality, A taxonomy of real and virtual world display integration P. Milgram, H Colquhoun – Mixed reality: Merging real and virtual worlds, 1999 https://www.researchgate.net/profile / Paul_Milgram / publication / 2440732_A_Taxonomy_of_Real_and_Virtual_World_Display_Integration/links/0c96052ade643c2f8a000000/A – Taxonomy – of – Real – and – Virtual – World – Display – Integration.pdf
Augmented Reality: A class of displays on the reality-virtuality continuum
Paul Milgram, Haruo Takemura, Akira Utsumi, Fumio Kishin
Extended Reality https://www.accenture.com/us-en/insight-xr-extended-reality
12. Mario Raich et alia, op. cit. The European Business Review – March-April 2018
13. Artificial Intelligence Is Now a Pentagon Priority. Will Silicon Valley Help https://www.nytimes.com/2018/08/26/technology/pentagon-artificial-intelligence.html
14. Kai Goerlich, Swimming In The Immersive Digital Experience, http://www.digitalistmag.com/digital-economy/digital-futures/2017/09/12/swimming-in-immersive-digital-experience-05335070; https://youtu.be/q5QVLztGwKs
15. How 5 Industries Are Already Using Virtual Reality, https://www.forbes.com/sites/centurylink/2017/09/29/how-5-industries-are-already-using-virtual reality
Augmented and virtual reality applications, https://www.eonreality.com/applications/
16. Real Uses of Virtual Reality in Education: How Schools are Using VR, http://www.emergingedtech.com/2017/06/real – uses – of – virtual – reality – in-education – how – schools-are-using-vr/
How Reality Technology is Used in Education, http://www.realitytechnologies.com/education https://www.redbrickresearch.com/2017/08/30how – virtual -reality – could – transform-higher-education/Augmented and Virtual Reality in Education — Part 2: Higher Ed, We are entering a new era in higher education, Scottie Gardonio https://www.iotforall.com/augmented-virtual-reality-higher-education/
Matthew Szymczyk, 3 Guides To The Growing List of Augmented Reality And Virtual Reality Companies, http://zugara.com/3-guides – to – the – growing – list – of – augmented-reality-and-virtual-reality-companies
17. Other senses are:
• Pressure; Itch; Temperature; Pain; Thirst; Hunger; Direction; Time; Muscle tension
• Proprioception (the ability to tell where your body parts are, relative to other body parts)
• Equilibrioception (the ability to keep your balance and sense body movement in terms of acceleration and directional changes)
• Stretch Receptors (These are found in such places as the lungs, bladder, stomach, blood vessels, and the gastrointestinal tract.)
• Chemoreceptors (These trigger an area of the medulla in the brain that is involved in detecting blood born hormones and drugs. It also is involved in the vomiting reflex.)
19. Robert Dale, The era of AI-human hybrid intelligence, https://techcrunch.com / 2016 / 04/12/the-era-of-ai-human-hybrid-intelligence/
20. The technological singularity, a moment when machines reach a level of intelligence that exceeds that of humans, https://futurism.com/separating – science – fact – science – hype – how – far – off – singularity /
Ray Kurzweil says that machine intelligence will be infinitely more powerful than all human intelligence combined, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Singularity_Is_Near
21. Vital, 9 Types of Intelligence, https://blog.adioma.com/9 – types – of – intelligence – infographic /
22. Ray Kurzweil has set the date 2045 for the ‘Singularity’, which is when we will multiply our effective intelligence a billion-fold by merging with the intelligence we have created.
23. Dobbs, Richard, James Manyika, Jonathan Woetzel, (2015) ‘The four global forces breaking all the trends’, McKinsey Global Institute. Quoted in “Artificial Intelligence. The Road Ahead in Low and Middle-Income Countries” June 2017, https://webfoundation.org/docs/2017/07/AI_Report_WF.pdf
24. Full Accenture report can be read or downloaded at: https://www.accenture.com/us-en/insight-artificial-intelligence-future-growth
25. Mark Purdy and Paul Daugherty, Why Artificial Intelligence is the Future of Growth, https://www.accenture.com/t20170927T080049Z__w__/us-en/_acnmedia/PDF-33/Accenture-Why-AI-is-the-Future-of-Growth.PDFla=en
26. Mark Purdy and Paul Daugherty , How AI boosts industry profits and innovation, https://www.accenture.com/t20170620T055506__w__/us-en/_acnmedia/Accenture/next-gen-5/insight-ai-industry-growth/pdf/Accenture-AI-Industry-Growth-Full-Report.pdf?la=en
27. Louis Columbus, Artificial Intelligence will enable 38% Profit Gains By 2035, https: // www.forbes.com / sites / louiscolumbus / 2017 / 06 / 22 /artificial – intelligence – will – enable – 38 – profit – gains – by – 2035 / #6531deff1969
28. CB Insights, Artificial Intelligence Trends 2019,
H. James Wilson, Paul R. Daugherty Collaborative Intelligence: Humans and AI Are Joining Forces
https://hbr.org/2018/07/collaborative-intelligence-humans-and-ai-are-joining-forces Applications of artificial intelligence, https: // en.wikipedia.org / wiki / Applications _ of _ artificial _ intelligence
Artificial Intelligence Industry – An Overview by Segment, https://emerj.com/ai-sector-overviews/artificial-intelligence-industry-an-overview-by-segment/
30. Ray Kurzweil, Singularity is near, 2005; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Singularity_Is_Near
32. Mario Raich, Dave Ulrich, Simon Dolan, Claudio Cisullo, Insights into the transformation of business in the Cyber-Age The European Business Review – March-April 2018, pp. 16-17 https://www.europeanbusinessreview.com/insights – into – the – transformation – of – business – in – the – cyber – age/
33. Dolan S.L. (2011) Coaching by values: A guide to success in the life of business and the business of life. iUniverse; Dolan S.L. Garcia S.l. Richley B., (2006) Managing by Values: Corporate Guide to living, being alive and making a living in the 21st century; Palgrave-MacMillan.
34. Cognitive technologies: The real opportunities for business Deloitte Review Issue 16
David Schatsky, Craig Muraskin, Ragu Gurumurthy, January 26, 2015 https://www2.deloitte.com/insights/us/en/deloitte-review/issue-16/cognitive-technologies-business-applications.html
35. Michael I. Jordan, Artificial Intelligence — The Revolution Hasn’t Happened Yet, https: // medium.com / @mijordan3 / artificia l – intelligence – the – revolution – hasnt – happened – yet – 5e1d5812e1e7
36. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND LIFE IN 2030, https://ai100.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/ai_100_report_0831fnl.pdf
37. Worldwide AI consciousness may replace human speech, https://nypost.com/2018/02/16/worldwide-ai-consciousness-may-replace-human-speech/
38. Martin Giles, Artificial intelligence is often overhyped—and here’s why that’s dangerous, https://www.technologyreview.com/s/612072/artificial – intelligence – is – often-overhypedand-heres-why-thats-dangerous/
39. Assaf Baciu, Artificial Intelligence Is More Artificial Than Intelligent, https://www.wired.com/2016/12/artificial-intelligence-artificial-intelligent/Assaf. Baciu is co-founder and senior vice president of Persado, a cognitive content-generation company in New York.
40. Richard Gall, Why We Should Stop Conflating Human and Machine Intelligence, https://singularityhub.com/2018/10/19/why – we – should – stop – conflating – human – and-machine-intelligence/
41. To name just a few: anger, curiosity, desire, empathy, happiness, hatred, hope, jealousy, love, passion, pride, sadness, shame, surprise. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emotion
42. Ted Chu,Human Purpose and Transhuman Potential: A Cosmic Vision of Our Future Evolution, 2014
43. Raya Bidshahri, What Is It That Makes Humans Unique? Dec 28, 2017 https://singularityhub.com/2017/12/28/what-is-it-that-makes-humans-unique/
44. Edelman, G.M. (2004), Wider Than the Sky: The Phenomenal Gift of Consciousness
45. How to Reach Your Higher Consciousness One Step at a Time, https://medium.com/mindvalley/how-to-reach-your-higher-consciousness-one-step-at-a-time-651fe9d62e94
46. Higher consciousness, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Higher_consciousness
47. ‘Happiness Tech’ Is On the Rise. Is It Working? Raya Bidshahri, Sep 02, 2018
48. Roddy Millar, Neuroscience for Business Impact, 06 September 2018
49. Daniel Faggella, Enterprise Adoption of Artificial Intelligence – When it Does and Doesn’t Make Sense, https://emerj.com/ai-executive-guides/enterprise-adoption-of-artificial-intelligence/?utm_term=&utm_medium=enterprise-adoption-of-artificial-intelligence&utm_campaign=General-Autoresponder-Email-2&utm_source=email&utm_content=&_ke=eyJrbF9lbWFpbCI6ICJtYXJpb0BlbWVyaXRhY2FkZW15LmNvbSIsICJrbF9jb21wYW55X2lkIjogIk1qeFpxZyJ9
50. Collaborative intelligence, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collaborative_intelligence
Christopher Isak, What is Collaborative Intelligence? https://techacute.com/what – is – collaborative – intelligence/
51. Erwin Dijkstra, Katinka Dijkstra, Towards a human/AI co-creation in the digital world, https://atos.net/en/blog/towards-humanai-co-creation-digital-world
56. Dave Damer, Collaborative intelligence is the future of work, https://www.itproportal.com/features/collaborative-intelligence-is-the-future-of-work/
Geoff Mulgan, Collective intelligence will change our world, https://www.morningfuture.com / en /article/2018/09/05/geoff-mulgan-ceo-nesta-ai-collective-intelligence-social-innovation/407/
57. Lisa Kay Solomon, How Can Leaders Ensure Humanity in a World of Thinking Machines?https://singularityhub.com/2019/01/09/how-can-leaders-ensure-humanity-in-a-world-of-thinking-machines/
Olaf Groth, Mark Nitzberg, Solomon’s Code: Humanity in a World of Thinking Machines, 2018
58. Lisa Kay Solomon, ibid
59. Dom Galeon, Peter Diamandis Thinks We’re Evolving Toward “Meta-Intelligence”, https://futurism.com/peter-diamandis-thinks-were-evolving-toward-meta-intelligence
Ulrich Lichtenthaler, (2018) “Beyond artificial intelligence: why companies need to go the extra step” Journal of Business Strategy, https://doi.org/10.1108/JBS-05-2018-0086
Abinash Tripathy, Why Humans Need To Find Symbiosis With AI, Jan 29, 2018 https://www.forbes.com/sites/forbestechcouncil/2018/01/29/why- humans – need – to – find – symbiosis-with-ai/#
60. Jody Medich, Making Superhumans Through Radical Inclusion and Cognitive Ergonomics, https: // singularityhub.com / 2019 / 01 / 10 /making – superhumans – through – radical – inclusion – and – cognitive – ergonomics/
61. We consider as “Cyber-Entities” AI enabled systems, platforms, machines, devices and entities
62. The “understanding” of key concepts and principles is contextual and requires new definition or description every time the context in which they are used changes. In addition, we need to understand that the key concepts and principles themselves are also drivers for the change and transformation of contexts.
63. Alex Davies, The WIRED Guide to Self-Driving Cars, https://www.wired.com/story/guide-self-driving-cars/
The Self-Driving Car Timeline – Predictions from the Top 11 Global Automakers
Last updated on December 21, 2018, published by Jon Walker, https://emerj.com/ai-adoption-timelines/self-driving-car-timeline-themselves-top-11-automakers/
64. Matt Turck, Frontier AI: How far are we from artificial “general” intelligence, really?
65. Stephen Johnson, Human-like A.I. will emerge in 5 to 10 years, say experts. A survey conducted at the Joint Multi-Conference on Human-Level Artificial Intelligence shows that 37% of respondents believe human-like artificial intelligence will be achieved within five to 10 years.
66. Cameron McLain, Can Artificial Intelligence Be Conscious? https://medium.com/hummingbird-ventures/can-artificial-intelligence-be-conscious-e316c2ac4769
67. Peter Rudin, What happens when Artificial equals Human Intelligence?
68. Matt Ridely, Artificial intelligence will be a symbiosis, not a replacement