Facts, Fads and predictions about the joint venture of Human Mind and AI algorithms
“Humans have dreams, computers don’t! Computer programmes can be replicated easily, human minds not at all!”
We are living in an extraordinary time; our world is in the midst of digitalisation that is already shifting towards a world dominated by virtualisation and artificial intelligence. Many agree that people will work and live in collaboration with “intelligent1 machines.” Although Chaos Theory is able to describe this imminent change as strange distortions (attractors) and disruptive contextual changes, what is most profound is that we are at the dawn of a deep transformation with historical dimensions creating the emergence of shifts in societal cognition.
This imminent change will literally turn things on its head as we know it. Everything seems to be put upside down. The deep transformation is still in process. We are still in the phase of transition and probably will be there for the next 25 years or so. Presently, we are busy with the challenges of globalisation and digitalisation, but within the next decade we will have to cope with the challenges of virtualisation and AI.
The virtualised world equipped with artificial intelligence will never be the same. We have started a disruptive journey into the big unknown. For virtualisation we are aiming at “seamlessness2” of “our reality” with the “virtual reality”. In terms of artificial intelligence, we still have to figure out what we mean by the construct of “intelligence.”
Human beings are psycho-physiological entities operating with different processes on different levels: reason, imagination, emotions, feelings, and instincts. Beside the physiological processes, there are conscious (i.e., controlled, instinctive, automatic which employs routines) processes. Humans are communicating constantly whether they be verbal, visual, through body language or other behavioural signs. Words are based on concepts and are loaded with meanings and emotions. Most of human communication is subjective and colored by our worldview, the Zeitgeist and our cultural environment. In addition, our perceptions are heavily distorted by prejudices and subjective worldviews. By contrast, machines are not conscious, non-emotional and ruled by algorithms created by humans.
Human behaviours and realities are based on genetic programming, life experiences, role models and education. Humans are all children of the Zeitgeist; even science is affected by it3. The history of science and ideas is the best proof to support this argument.
Science is the most objective way to look at the world. But it is also biased by its very rudimentary assumptions and foundations. We tend to see the world and universe through the lens of the four-dimensional macro cosmos. Meanings are contextual and we are operating within different theoretical frameworks. Today we can see the edge of contemporary science, but most of us are not able to move beyond it. It seems to be reserved for future generations.
So far humanity has been relying on individuals and groups of individuals to find solutions for our problems. Today we are able to leverage the intelligence of large groups of people and are approaching the possibility of using the collective intelligence of our entire humanity for this purpose. However, with the development of artificial intelligence, we can see an additional level that searches and finds convenient solutions; it is the collaboration of humans with intelligent programmes and machines.
The collaboration of humans with smart machines and programmes creates new solutions way beyond our imagination, leading to meaningful life quality enhancing products, services and experiences! The objective of this paper is to explore several levels of co-existence, cooperation and co-creation of humans and intelligent machines that we denominate collaborative intelligence.
Plainly speaking, digital platforms4 enable us to leverage collective human intelligence. The first attempt of collaboration and co-creation of humans and intelligent machines is popping up in the Internet of Things daily. Soon we will see the emergence of “Meta-Intelligence”: it will represent a merger of human intelligence with AI, leveraging collective intelligence with the computational power of intelligent machines, the Internet of Things, the cloud and virtual reality. This will be the era of the Meta-Mind, which will lead us towards the “Fusion-Mind”, when advancements in technology will allow us to merge an enhanced human mind with “Advanced General Artificial Intelligence” (hereafter AGAI) based entities. We argue that this will be a process of “symbiosis” rather than replacement.
Contextual Changes in the Cyber-Age
Are we heading towards a state of Meta-Mind?
Several extremely powerful forces and major threats are converging simultaneously and pushing us into a new world yet to be experienced.
Let us examine these trends briefly:
To get prepared for the big transformation ahead of us, we need to understand what is happening right now and we must explore where this is leading us to.
The advancement of artificial intelligence is unstoppable. AI is already present in all areas of our life and work. AI applications in business are spreading like a wildfire, but most of them are just pilots7. The big explosion is still ahead of us. Due to the development of Cyber Reality (Digital Reality, Augmented Reality, and Virtual Reality) and artificial intelligence we are also experiencing the transformation of reality towards “hybrid” realities.
To cope with this deep transformation, we need to have life-long learning experiences encompassing all forms and levels of education. The formal education and the corporate education need to converge to leverage human specific skills, competencies and talents, and to prepare people for collaboration with artificial intelligence based entities. Future education needs therefore to be based on four pillars: learning, research, development and deployment, with a strong focus on individual talent development8.
Thus, collaboration and partnership are the keys to success. In the future, we can imagine scenarios where information integration, visualisation and new modes of collaboration will improve business performance beyond our expectations9.
At the end of this transformation we will be living and working in a different world using hybrid models based on the different “Realities”10. When we are dreaming to go back to the solid grounds of the past, we are reinforcing the blindness towards the context around us. When we are mourning our losses, we are missing new opportunities.
AI and Hybrid Reality11
Table 2 is a synoptic summary of the expected seamlessness of the emulating capacity of the human abilities through AI & CR. In a previous article published in this journal we have already presented a classification of the realities we are facing12. Based on these we will create multiple “Hybrid-Realities.” The full power of the Cyber-Reality will be actualised when the Virtual-Reality will be seamless to Our-Reality. Table 2 takes a closer look at the expected development of Cyber Reality and Artificial Intelligence.
Development of Cyber-Reality on the road towards ‘seamlessness’
Our experience of the world is multisensory. Thus, it is important to understand where we stand in respect to the different senses on “seamlessness.” This means that people would experience “Our Reality” in a similar way even if the content would be pure fiction. The possibility to experience products of imagination and fiction like our reality, would make it immensely larger and deeper. This bears the risk that VR may become a substitute for real life and then becomes an escape.
Virtual Reality (VR) seamless to Our Reality (OR) (i.e., engaging our senses) will take quite some time to reach where all the core senses are encompassed. Cyber-Reality may allow us to have new senses; some not known today. (Table 3)
Enablers of seamless includes:
• Artificial Intelligence
• Quantum Computing
• Computer interface Mind to Brain (M2B) and Brain to Mind (B2M)
• Development of the Internet and global connectivity
• Communication infrastructure: global connectivity, mobile communication,
Development of Artificial Intelligence
In the following we will revisit the expected developments in Artificial Intelligence.
AI is just a “proxy term” and it is highly imprecise. Often it is misleading. It is mainly based on the limited concept of “IQ”, not considering the other intelligence concepts, like the one proposed by Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences18.
In order to better understand the human/AI interaction, let us differentiate between skills, competencies and talents. So far, the AI based entities, can replace several human skills and partially human competence, but so far not human talent. A talent is composed of a key skill, focused on a selected knowledge or expertise domain. Both of them need to be developed and deployed jointly to build a core competency (i.e., intent + behaviour = competence). Intensive deployment of a core competency leads to the creation of a talent. Extraordinary talents have in addition a genetic competitive edge.
AI as the future driver for growth
Research by McKinsey has gone as far as to describe AI as contributing to a transformation of society “happening ten times faster and at 300 times the scale” of the Industrial Revolution23. Several authors see AI as the new driver of growth, and it is well summarised in an excellent document produced by Accenture entitled: Artificial Intelligence is the future of growth24.
Mark Purdy and Paul Daugherty see that AI has the potential to overcome the physical limitations of capital and labor and open up new sources of value and growth25. In the report ‘How AI Boosts Industry Profits and Innovation’ published by Accenture Research and Frontier Economics the authors claim that AI technologies have the potential to increase productivity by 40% or more by 2035. According to Purdy and Daughtery AI will increase economic growth by an average of 1.7% across 16 industries by 2035 with information and communication, manufacturing and financial services leading all industries26. In a Forbes article Louis Columbus claims that Artificial Intelligence will enable 38% profit gains by 203527. It will mostly increase profitability in education, accommodation and food services and construction industries.
AI is already enabling a wave of innovation across many sectors of the global economy. It helps businesses use resources more efficiently. New AI deployments are already widely spread in the business world and beyond. There are many excellent overviews about the deployment of AI in the different industries28.
Talking about Singularity
The technological singularity is the moment when machines reach a level of intelligence that exceeds that of humans 29. Kurzweil, the father of this concept, claims that when “Singularity” has been reached machine intelligence will be infinitely more powerful than all human intelligence combined. “Singularity” is, according to Kurzweil, also the point at which machine intelligence and humans would merge30.
2029 is the date Kurzweil has predicted when an AI will pass a valid Turing test and therefore achieve human levels of intelligence (which is usually measures with an online IQ test). He has set the date 2045 for the “Singularity”, which is when we will multiply our effective intelligence a billion-fold by merging with the intelligence we have created31.
Are we entering a world in real transition?
Creativity and entrepreneurship are the driving forces of human civilisation. Artificial Intelligence and Cyber-Reality are powerful forces pushing both of them into a new dimension.
The transformation provoked by the powerful forces of change create major issues for the fabric of society, for the economy, for business, for science and technology and for education. Remember, transformation is not change – because it is change that stays and there is no way of going back. We need to move from past glories towards future challenges and opportunities. This requires changing from future exploration towards future design. To survive and to thrive, most organisations need to operate on two levels simultaneously: coping with the existing context and requirements and venturing into the emerging requirements at the same time.
The transition towards a digitised world is at its heights, and the transition towards a fully developed Cyber-Reality is in its infancy. In a world of permanent transition, organisational and political leaders need to focus much more on the emerging opportunities and challenges. What we are facing, is one of the biggest transformations in human history comparable to the taming of fire, the development of a writing system, and printing.
We are looking at a permanent transition on all levels. The following are a few examples to illustrate this point:
• Work may become a privilege. A job for life will be the exception.
• We have shifts from one geopolitical constellation to another.
• We soon will be living and working in multiple realities: Our-Reality, Digital- Reality, Augmented-Reality, Virtual-Reality
• Lifetime education will become a reality hence we will need to permanently cope with disruptive events, transitions and transformations throughout the lifespan
At the end of this transformation we will be living and working in a different world using hybrid models based on the different “Realities”. For detailed discussion of the transformation in business please read our former article published in this journal and entitled: “Insights into the transformation of business in the Cyber-Age32”.
This transformation is escaping many people because their intuition is to follow the old, outdated patterns and settle in the comfort zone. There is no surprise that in this type of VUCA world, many feel lost and anxious as they have tremendous fear of what the future will look like and they wonder if they will grasp it and be able to find their way in it. We are in a great need of a compass that will guide us in this regard. The attitude of denial or an escape is not the solution to confront the deep transformation around us. One way to deal with an uncertain world is to develop an individualised compass. Dolan, for example, has been working for years on the need to develop an internal compass by focusing on values and understanding what is really important33.
Today collaboration and partnership are the keys to success. In the future, we can imagine scenarios where information integration, visualisation and new modes of collaboration will improve business performance beyond our expectations and current imaginations!
Humans and Cyber-Entities
Computers cannot think. But increasingly, they can do things only humans were able to do before. It is now possible to automate tasks that require human perceptual skills, such as recognising handwriting or identifying faces, and those that require cognitive skills, such as planning, reasoning from partial or uncertain information, and learning. Technologies able to perform tasks such as these, traditionally assumed to require human intelligence, are known as “cognitive technologies”34.
Instead of focusing solely on “Artificial Intelligence”, we should start thinking about artificially enabled and performed purposeful actions. Remember that all of the so-called “smart” and “intelligent” machines, are actually based on algorithms. Consequently, they are just mimicking human behaviour to get similar or same outcomes as humans.
Back to basics: what is human uniqueness?
If we want to compare humans with AI based “Cyber-Entities”, we need to bear in mind a holistic view on both sides. We need to look at what is unique and what is common to both sides. There is an immense amount of biological, biochemical and neurological processes necessary to create a living entity, and this is just a small part of being a human. “Life” as such, is still a conundrum. And, there are plenty of “non-material” elements of a human being.
Cognition, consciousness and self-consciousness, self-awareness, conscience, the mind with many different processes like thinking, decision taking, several different intelligence processes etc.; the free will allowing purposeful planned actions, imagination, intuition, abilities like imagination, intuition, insights, creation, destruction, and entrepreneurship. We can add the personality, the Ego, core characteristics, dreams, the whole array of human senses, socialisation, relationships, empathy, emotions, feelings, gut feelings, etc. We need to add education, culture and civilisation, and the spiritual dimension. And so on.
The foundations of our mind can be also highly irrational, based on beliefs, assumptions, prejudices, generalisations, etc. The mind can be also linked to instincts, values, ethical or moral principles. It is also a mesh of irrational elements and processes. To make things even more complicated, the elements mentioned above can be interwoven and linked.
Will Cyber-Entities ever have consciousness? Can they become self-conscious? Will they be able to become like humans? Will we be able to “download” the human brain to a computer? These questions might not be relevant today, because technology, which would enable this, is still far away. And moreover, perhaps these are the wrong questions. So far, the development of so called “smart”, responsible intelligent machines and Cyber-Entities is based on emulating human behaviour and certain human abilities. They perform certain human actions and behaviours in a similar way like humans, but the basis of their activities is very different. Or, as Michael I. Jordan calls them “human-imitative AI35. Maybe we should use the term “artificial behaviour”, rather than “artificial intelligence”? In fact, the real question bothering us today is: “How far can and will Cyber-Entities replace humans, because they can do it better and more efficient than humans?” Another troublesome question is, “What will the Cyber-Entities be able to do that humans cannot?” According to the One Hundred Year Study on AI36, already today, AI is changing our daily life, and work. It also changes the way people interact with technology. AI systems are developed to accomplish particular tasks, and each application requires years of focused research and a careful unique construction.
Table 6 is an attempt to synthesise and present an overview of the expected AI emulating capacity mimicking human intelligence and behaviour. For now, it seems that we are only at the first steps, we have still only “weak AI” and very simple CR. The necessary technological basis, like quantum computing and the computer interface: “brain to computer” and the other way around, are still in their infancy.
But no doubt we are making progress. Someday “hybrid intelligence” and Cyber Entities with a high level of autonomy will be reality. As of today, we can see only the first steps in the development of the worldwide consciousness37. Nonetheless, as Martin Giles is pointing out, artificial intelligence is often overhyped – and that’s is dangerous38. It is too early to speculate if the highly sophisticated Cyber-Entities will have their own consciousness, because we still don’t know what consciousness is all about. It seems that no existing AI can master even the simplest challenges without human-provided context39. But we cannot exclude that in the far future when AI might become truly intelligent and able to operate without context. In any event, we should start developing abilities and activities to deal with future Cyber-Entities which we do not expect or even anticipate today.
The keywords here are “emulated seamlessness!” For example, robots, even “Robo-Clones” copying humans to perfection, with identical appearance and even reactions like humans will be just machines emulating humans, because of their different physical and non-physical construction. They can be easily identified, even at a distance, by control of the heart beat or brain waves.
Richard Gall points out that an artificial neural network can process very specific data at an incredible scale but is not able to process information in the rich and multidimensional manner a human brain can40. The human brain allows humans to think critically and creatively in a way that does not need to be programmed. We also need to acknowledge that people have more than just “intelligence”, collective intelligence and a mind. They also have a personality, self-awareness, inspiration, imagination, inspiration, intuition, also beliefs, desires and intentions, finally instincts, feelings and emotions41. People are capable to create social relationships and friendships. They are able to predict other people’s behaviour; they can even have compassion and empathy, (i.e., understand or feel what another person is experiencing).
People have talents and sometimes amazing mental abilities comparable to computers, such as image memory, calculation, etc. They can be entrepreneurial, create cultures and civilisations. And last but not least, people have a personality and spiritual experiences. Ted Chu42 identifies three traits which make humans unique:
• Symbolic abstract thinking, i.e. the ability to think about objects, principles and ideas that are physically not present
• Structure building, i.e. the ability to build physical, and social structures and mental models
• Higher consciousness. Raya Bidshari describes it in her article as self-reflective consciousness, boosting our ability for self-transformation. According to her it contributes to our abilities for self-monitoring, self-recognition and self-identification.
For Gerald Edelman higher consciousness, “involves the ability to be conscious of being conscious”44. Other authors see higher consciousness as an ever-increasing awareness of the meaning of existence, of our spiritual essence, and of the spiritual or energetic nature in all things45. Almost all religions have a concept of higher consciousness46.
Humans thrive on empathy, emotions, imagination, creativity, and entrepreneurship rather non-existent so far in even the most advanced and powerful Cyber-Entities. We believe that even “hyper smart machines” will not be able to have feelings and emotions, like love, hate, happiness, sadness, etc. They will never experience compassion, jealousy, or be sorry and regret something. They will not be inspired, enthusiastic or passionate; be optimistic or pessimistic. No doubt they will be able to mimic feelings and emotions, but not more. Neither will they have conscience and sense remorse. All this is very human and will remain human for long, if not forever. In this respect animals are closer to humans than the machines.
On the other hand, someday machines will be able to help increase people’s happiness, overcome depression or deep pain. They will help us to make better decisions49. They will be able to increase cognitive powers; help to sustain our creative fire or entrepreneurial spirit.
It is important to bear in mind that today’s AI applications, including the fast spreading business applications, are still in an emerging stage, based on simple AI moving into multiple factor AI, like the autonomous cars. As Daniel Faggella the founder and CEO at Emerj clearly states, “AI is being hyped, and its potential in business is still for the most part experimental”49 but we never the less need to be aware that an AI powered Fourth Industrial Revolution will affect, complement, destroy, transform and create millions of jobs worldwide.
From Collaborative Intelligence towards the State of Meta-Mind
“Intelligence” is a tricky and debated concept. For the purpose of this paper we are using a simplified definition. We consider “intelligence” as a process leading to a purposeful action creating specific results. This action can be provided by humans, animals, or machines.
Maybe in this context we should differentiate between “Organic Intelligence” (carbon-based living entities like humans and animals) and “Anorganic Intelligence” (silicon-based, like machines, robots, and cyber-entities).
Collaborative Intelligence (CQ50) is a combination of Human Mind (HM) (individual & collective) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) in different forms and levels. It delivers the best results leveraging the most appropriate abilities of both sides.
CQ = HM + AI
Given the fast developments in AI, we may require focusing more on the human factor of the equation in order to keep the balance and make real progress. As Erin and Katinka Dijkstra state: “It is about human/AI co-creation in the digital world”51.
The MIT Centre for Collective Intelligence is exploring how people and computers can be connected so that – collectively – they act more intelligently than any person, group, or computer has ever done before.52 Thomas W. Malone, a Professor of Management at the MIT Sloan School of Management and the founding director of the MIT Centre for Collective Intelligence53 prefers to use the term “collective intelligence.” Moreover, according to Don Tapscott and Anthony D. Williams, “collective intelligence” is mass collaboration. In order for this concept to happen, four principles need to exist: openness, peering, sharing, and acting globally54.
A successful deployment of collective intelligence is Crowdsourcing, a process through which a task, problem or project is solved and completed through a group of unofficial and geographically dispersed participants55.
Collaboration, cooperation and partnership can exist between people, or people and other entities (animals, robots, AI based machines). The basis is similar. Between people they are based on common ground, open communication, finally mutual trust and respect. Collaborative Intelligence (CI) needs: a clear and meaningful purpose (P), direct communication (DC) finally trust, reliability, safety and security (TRSS):
Collaborative Intelligence = P x DC x TRSS
The three top priorities for a successful collaboration of people with AI based machines and systems include:
1. Trust based on Safety, Security and Reliability
2. Ease of use and meaningfulness, (i.e., access and direct communication)
3. Control of deployment and further development
Fast and meaningful development of collaborative intelligence is only possible with focus on the human mind enhancement in parallel to the development of the AI. It also requires the ability to recognise advantages and uniqueness of organic and anorganic intelligence to create a beneficial partnership. (see Table 7) Examining the “Development of Artificial Intelligence and Cyber-Reality” we can identify, perhaps, three development stages or levels of collaborative intelligence:
• A basic stage of Collaborative Intelligence, the simple connection of people and AI based entities. This stage of Collaborative Intelligence is already in place in many working environments today56. In a subtle way we are giving up decisions step-by-step to AI based programmes and machines. The authors of “Solomon’s Code: Humanity in a World of Thinking Machines”, claim that the shift in balance of power between intelligent machines and humans is already here57. But they see many advantages in this symbiotic-intelligence” which is justified by partnership, and enhances economic good, well-being, at work, and quality of life58.
• Meta-Mind, a merger of Human Intelligence with AI leveraging the Collaborative Intelligence and combining collective intelligence of the crowd with the computational power of machines, Internet of Things, cloud and VR. The stage of Meta-Intelligence is on the increase and is emerging59. But we still have not developed some of the basics in human-machine interfaces60. Meta-Mind (M-M) is encompassing human mind and AI in all available forms. We need it to be able to live and act in the upcoming “Multi-Reality” and “Hybrid-Realities”. Meta-Mind is a merger and symbiosis of Human Mind with AI leveraging the Collaborative Intelligence and combining collective intelligence of the crowd with the computational power of machines, Internet of Things, cloud and VR.
Meta-Mind requires new forms of organisations, in particular business organisations, also new structures such as digital and virtual platforms and meta-platforms, as well as core processes. This will also lead to a partnership of people and “smart machines”, and a shift of values. “Smart machines” stand here for any “Cyber-Entity61 in all different realities.
M-M is also the result of the deployment of new technologies like neuroscience, bioinformatics, Cyber-Reality (i.e., digital, augmented and virtual reality). And finally, it requires a new understanding of “human mind” and “consciousness”62.
• Fusion-Mind, a merger of Human Mind with GAI-based entities and Meta-Intelligence. The Fusion-Mind is one of several possibilities leveraging the strengths of both sides of the human mind and the AI resp.
Alternatively, there is the possible path of AI development without partnership with humans. Today most of AI applications we experience are still at the stage of “weak AI”. It allows AI to execute narrow, single tasks. Some coordination of several single tasks executed by AI is, however, emerging. A good example is the self-driving cars63. The next stage would be General AI, which is considered to be already “strong AI”, aiming to emulate most if not all human intelligence processes64.
Whether AI will ever reach the stage of being equal or even surpassing the human mind is a dream of some researchers65 and a nightmare for others66. Anyway, we need first to find answers to some difficult questions, like “What is consciousness?” and “Can AI be conscious”?
Peter Rudin proposes three scenarios depicting how AI may become equal to human intelligence.
1. “As machines continuously learn from humans and previously generated knowledge, they will eventually create their own identity, far surpassing the intellectual capacity of humans. Triggered by some kind of knowledge explosion, they might seek independence from humans.”
2. “Humans decide to merge with intelligent machines, most likely via a direct brain-computer interface (BCI). Due to the high-speed access to knowledge and intelligence provided by intelligence-service providers, this combination will significantly increase the intellectual capacity of humans.”
3. “Creating a new Singularity–Ecosystem enhancing human-machine partnership, fostering the strength of each without the tight interconnection described in scenario 267”.
This does not exclude a fourth one, where the AI enabled machines create their own intelligence completely different from the human one. This could lead to a different description of the world, as well as science and technology.
Conclusions and Implications for the Future
Future “Collaborative Intelligence” is the outcome of the merger of Human Mind with Advanced General Intelligence (AGAI) leading to Meta-Mind. It is a symbiosis, not a replacement68! It can, in the far future, even lead to a “fusion” of human minds with the AGA.I
Whenever we are dreaming to go back to the solid grounds of the past, we are reinforcing the blindness towards the context around us. When we are mourning our losses, we are missing new opportunities. Cyber-Age is a time for creation and destruction. Unchained creativity and entrepreneurship are the driving forces of change and transformation. As of today, we can see the Collaborative Intelligence unfolding and the state of Meta-Mind emerging. The Fusion-Mind is a still far-fetched possibility and the rest are utopias and dystopias.
• Synopsis of the principal message: To get prepared for the big transformation ahead of us, we need to understand what is happening right now and we need to speculate on where this is leading
• We must permanently explore and deploy the possibilities of mind enhancement and talent development and the creation of lifelong learning systems
• We need to build and sustain continuous development of collaboration between people, machines and other non-human entities based on the available enhancement of mind, technologies and solutions
• We need to invest continuously and equally in parallel into human mind enhancement and talent development and into AI development with corresponding applications for life quality Collaborative Intelligence will usually be better than standalone AI solutions
• As a guideline we should aim for the use of the better suitable “ability between human activity, AI deployment or joint work”
• We also need to carefully watch the progression of the AI to see any development of unexpected abilities and deployment
Containing the Risks of AI
• Safety and security. Ownership and access. Right for deployment
• Reliability. Malfunctions. Software errors: there is no perfect error free machine, code or algorithm. Wrong algorithms based on biases and prejudices
• Control of deployment and future development of AI. Autonomous and independent CE’s and robots “out of control”
• Cyber-crime: hijacking programmes; malicious programmes; extortion, etc.
• Cyber war and cyber terrorism
• Malpractice: malicious use
• AI overdoses and over reliance creating “cyber-junkies” and causing stupidity on a large scale: “endemic stupidity”. People giving up autonomy and freedom
• Total government control of individuals and the population
Dreams are changing the world. Let’s dream together about a better world!
The journey towards Ω-Mind begins when human smart AI-based machines are considered to work together. This is the beginning of the age of Collaborative Intelligence. It is where we seem to be at the present (i.e. the year 2020).
The next two steps involve the reaching of the state of Meta-Mind and the ensuing state of Fusion-Mind; both states are still ahead of us. Nonetheless, what is already visible are the different directions the enhanced development will take place. We can move towards the first dystopia with an overlord ruling the planet, or at least a big part of it. We could also be moving towards the second dystopia where the machine intelligence is controlling the planet, or towards the utopia with an Ω-Mind where people with enhanced minds and talents are collaborating and co-creating jointly with machine intelligence, and are shaping and designing the world for the betterment of humanity. What we will probably see is parts of the world being ruled by powerful Lords and high-tech companies and individuals, and others by machine intelligence. Today we still have the possibility to have an impact on the main direction of future development. To counterbalance the already visible preference for the development of dystopias, we need to focus on the direction towards the Ω-Mind, which means investing into the enhancement of the human mind and talents, as well as into the collaboration with the machine intelligence.
We cannot conclude this paper without taking the risk of venturing into the future. It is a calculated risk, but we wish to conclude this paper with a “future view” that will provide the readers, some reference points to dream or to act upon.
Remember that AI is invisible just like electric power, but it is virtually anywhere. Collaboration between humans and AI based entities is becoming part of daily life, education, science, technology work and even politics. AI will be an essential ingredient of nearly all activities in all “Realities.” People will be working much less than in the past. They will be rewarded based on the value they create, some for which is the outcome of partnership and collaboration with machines. Taxes will be based on the value created. If people’s incomes will not cover the minimum necessary for a decent life, the missing part will be supplied by a “minimum life quality fund.” The pension fund will be based on a basket of shares.
If our predictions are valid, we also argue that the fears of AI overtaking control over the world, will not materialise. The collaboration of humans with AI, leveraging the unique abilities of both sides, will produce the best and most powerful solution, leading to the creation of AI-Symbionts. People with particular talents will be selected for mind and body enhancement and get a special education to become AI-Symbionts. These will be humans living and acting in partnership with highly sophisticated and powerful AI entities. The AI-Symbionts will be living incognito all over the planet. Although some live and work in special highly secured resorts, in particular the scientist and technologists doing research. A particular focus will be on the human mind and the question arising as to the nature and source of consciousness. Mind you, in the real world there will always be “good” and “evil” Symbionts, depending on the purpose they are aiming at.
The formula is that only the AI-Symbionts will know how many of them do exist. The AI-Symbionts will be able to communicate directly, if they wish so, with all other AI-Symbionts, but also with all AI enabled entities and devices. Their communication will be based on a secure new technology using the “entanglement” properties of the elementary particles. This proposition is based on a completely different approach to science and technology which will generate new scientific methods. For the public in general, the AI-Symbionts will appear only as 3-D projections, or as Robo-Clones. They will differentiate them by the basic symbol and different colors. We believe, the AI-Symbionts will be far more powerful than any pure AI system. Since the entire world is highly interconnected safety and security, will be the primary concern of the Symbionts. The latter, will also be working on solutions to the global key issues of our planet, like the consequences of climate change, pollution and destruction of the eco-systems, regeneration of the oceans, social polarisation, fundamentalist ideologies, etc.
The Ω-Symbionts, will be known to stand for peace, peace of mind, universal human values and a sustainable life quality for all people, and overall for the meaningful and beneficial use of AI. The “evil” AI-Symbionts using the lightning symbol will fight against them because they will stand on the side of the power. It is the eternal fight of good and evil forces leveraged on a new level. For some people AI will become a surrogate, an ersatz for religion. For them the AI-Symbionts will be the angels and demons.
The fears based on the advancement of AI are not completely unfounded. The abuses by the power players on one side and the unexpected and uncontrollable features of the autonomous cyber-entities, may not always be prevented by the Ω-Symbionts, leading to extremely dangerous situations. Again and again the world will be tangling between wrongly directed digital autonomy and power greedy humans, governments and organisations. The world development council will be still very busy with workup and prevention, to keep the world a safe place and to prevent major disasters.
The Ω-Symbionts will be aiming at a world with a Fusion-Mind where all people and intelligent machines are connected together. Some will dare even to think about a world ‘beyond’ based on one single mind, combined of all human minds and artificial intelligence-based machines and systems creating the Ω-Mind.
About the Authors
Mario Raich is a Swiss futurist, book author and global management consultant. He was a Senior Executive in several global financial organisations, and Invited Professor to some leading business schools like ESADE (Barcelona). He is the co-founder and Chairman of e-Merit Academy (www.emeritacademy.com), and Managing Director for the Innovation Services at Frei+Raich Ltd. in Zurich. In addition he is a member of the advisory board of the Global Future of Work Foundation in Barcelona. Currently he is researching the impact of Cyber-Reality and Artificial Intelligence on society, education, business and work.
Simon L. Dolan is currently the president of the Global Future of Work Foundation (www.globalfutureofwork.com). He used to be the Future of Work Chair at ESADE Business School in Barcelona, and before that he taught for many years at McGill and Montreal Universities (Canada), Boston and University of Colorado (U.S.). He is a prolific author with over 70 books on themes connected with managing people, culture reengineering, values and coaching. His full c.v. can be seen at: www.simondolan.com
Claudio Cisullo is a Swiss-based serial entrepreneur and investor. He is the founder and Chairman of CC Trust, a family office invested across the biotech, leisure, pharmaceuticals, professional services, real estate and technology sectors. Among his most recent investment is Chain IQ Group, a globally active provider of procurement services.
Bonnie A. Richley is the Co-Founder and Chief Design and Innovation Officer for Interaction Science, LLC. She previously was an Associate Professor and Chair/Program Director for the Department of Business and Entrepreneurship at Chatham University, the AVP of HR and Asst Professor at Case Western Reserve University. Her work involves positive organisation development with expertise in Appreciative Inquiry; executive coaching as a trainer and master coach; and adult learning theories and competency development.
1. “Intelligent”, also “smart” machines or programs is used for artificial intelligence-based machines resp programs
2. We are using “seamlessness” with the meaning of seamless transition and equal to, but not the same.
3. Meaning of Zeitgeist. Scholars have long maintained that each era has a unique spirit, a nature or climate that sets it apart from all other epochs. In German, such a spirit is known as “Zeitgeist,” from the German words Zeit, meaning “time,” and Geist, meaning “spirit”or “ghost.” Some writers and artists assert that the true zeitgeist of an era cannot be known until it is over, and several have declared that only artists or philosophers can adequately explain it. We don’t know if that’s true, but we do know that “zeitgeist” has been a useful addition to the English language since at least 1835 https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/zeitgeist
4. A digital platform refers to the software or hardware of a website allowing for the interaction of its users, https://www.igi-global.com/dictionary/digital-platform/55829
5. Discussed by Raich and Dolan, in Beyond Business and Society in Transformation, 2008
6. See: Cyber Realities: where we are now at: http://www.alliant.com/Risk-Solutions/Documents/Cyber_Realities_No_1.pdf
7. Daniel Faggella, Enterprise Adoption of Artificial Intelligence – When it Does and Doesn’t Make Sense, https://emerj.com/ai-executive-guides/enterprise-adoption-of-artificial-intelligence/?utm_term=&utm_medium=enterprise-adoption-of-artificial-intelligence&utm_campaign=General-Autoresponder-Email-2&utm_source=email&utm_content=&_ke=eyJrbF9lbWFpbCI6ICJtYXJpb0BlbWVyaXRhY2FkZW15LmNvbSIsICJrbF9jb21wYW55X2lkIjogIk1qeFpxZyJ9
8. Mario Raich, Dave Ulrich, Simon Dolan, Claudio Cisullo, Insights into the transformation of business in the Cyber-Age, The European Business Review – March-April 2018, https://www.europeanbusinessreview.com/insights-into-the-transformation-of-business-in-the-cyber-age/
9. Raich M., Eisler R., Dolan S.L. Cyberness: The Future reinvented. Amazon.com 2014.
10. Mario Raich et alia, op. cit. The European Business Review – March-April 2018
11. Extended Reality (XR) Paul Milgram has introduced the concept of the “reality-virtuality continuum”. XR is a superset which includes the entire spectrum from “the complete real” to “the complete virtual”
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extended_reality, A taxonomy of real and virtual world display integration P. Milgram, H Colquhoun – Mixed reality: Merging real and virtual worlds, 1999 https://www.researchgate.net/profile / Paul_Milgram / publication / 2440732_A_Taxonomy_of_Real_and_Virtual_World_Display_Integration/links/0c96052ade643c2f8a000000/A – Taxonomy – of – Real – and – Virtual – World – Display – Integration.pdf
Augmented Reality: A class of displays on the reality-virtuality continuum
Paul Milgram, Haruo Takemura, Akira Utsumi, Fumio Kishin
Extended Reality https://www.accenture.com/us-en/insight-xr-extended-reality
12. Mario Raich et alia, op. cit. The European Business Review – March-April 2018
13. Artificial Intelligence Is Now a Pentagon Priority. Will Silicon Valley Help https://www.nytimes.com/2018/08/26/technology/pentagon-artificial-intelligence.html
14. Kai Goerlich, Swimming In The Immersive Digital Experience, http://www.digitalistmag.com/digital-economy/digital-futures/2017/09/12/swimming-in-immersive-digital-experience-05335070; https://youtu.be/q5QVLztGwKs
15. How 5 Industries Are Already Using Virtual Reality, https://www.forbes.com/sites/centurylink/2017/09/29/how-5-industries-are-already-using-virtual reality
Augmented and virtual reality applications, https://www.eonreality.com/applications/
16. Real Uses of Virtual Reality in Education: How Schools are Using VR, http://www.emergingedtech.com/2017/06/real – uses – of – virtual – reality – in-education – how – schools-are-using-vr/
How Reality Technology is Used in Education, http://www.realitytechnologies.com/education https://www.redbrickresearch.com/2017/08/30how – virtual -reality – could – transform-higher-education/Augmented and Virtual Reality in Education — Part 2: Higher Ed, We are entering a new era in higher education, Scottie Gardonio https://www.iotforall.com/augmented-virtual-reality-higher-education/
Matthew Szymczyk, 3 Guides To The Growing List of Augmented Reality And Virtual Reality Companies, http://zugara.com/3-guides – to – the – growing – list – of – augmented-reality-and-virtual-reality-companies
17. Other senses are:
• Pressure; Itch; Temperature; Pain; Thirst; Hunger; Direction; Time; Muscle tension
• Proprioception (the ability to tell where your body parts are, relative to other body parts)
• Equilibrioception (the ability to keep your balance and sense body movement in terms of acceleration and directional changes)
• Stretch Receptors (These are found in such places as the lungs, bladder, stomach, blood vessels, and the gastrointestinal tract.)
• Chemoreceptors (These trigger an area of the medulla in the brain that is involved in detecting blood born hormones and drugs. It also is involved in the vomiting reflex.)
19. Robert Dale, The era of AI-human hybrid intelligence, https://techcrunch.com / 2016 / 04/12/the-era-of-ai-human-hybrid-intelligence/
20. The technological singularity, a moment when machines reach a level of intelligence that exceeds that of humans, https://futurism.com/separating – science – fact – science – hype – how – far – off – singularity /
Ray Kurzweil says that machine intelligence will be infinitely more powerful than all human intelligence combined, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Singularity_Is_Near
21. Vital, 9 Types of Intelligence, https://blog.adioma.com/9 – types – of – intelligence – infographic /
22. Ray Kurzweil has set the date 2045 for the ‘Singularity’, which is when we will multiply our effective intelligence a billion-fold by merging with the intelligence we have created.
23. Dobbs, Richard, James Manyika, Jonathan Woetzel, (2015) ‘The four global forces breaking all the trends’, McKinsey Global Institute. Quoted in “Artificial Intelligence. The Road Ahead in Low and Middle-Income Countries” June 2017, https://webfoundation.org/docs/2017/07/AI_Report_WF.pdf
24. Full Accenture report can be read or downloaded at: https://www.accenture.com/us-en/insight-artificial-intelligence-future-growth
25. Mark Purdy and Paul Daugherty, Why Artificial Intelligence is the Future of Growth, https://www.accenture.com/t20170927T080049Z__w__/us-en/_acnmedia/PDF-33/Accenture-Why-AI-is-the-Future-of-Growth.PDFla=en
26. Mark Purdy and Paul Daugherty , How AI boosts industry profits and innovation, https://www.accenture.com/t20170620T055506__w__/us-en/_acnmedia/Accenture/next-gen-5/insight-ai-industry-growth/pdf/Accenture-AI-Industry-Growth-Full-Report.pdf?la=en
27. Louis Columbus, Artificial Intelligence will enable 38% Profit Gains By 2035, https: // www.forbes.com / sites / louiscolumbus / 2017 / 06 / 22 /artificial – intelligence – will – enable – 38 – profit – gains – by – 2035 / #6531deff1969
28. CB Insights, Artificial Intelligence Trends 2019,
H. James Wilson, Paul R. Daugherty Collaborative Intelligence: Humans and AI Are Joining Forces
https://hbr.org/2018/07/collaborative-intelligence-humans-and-ai-are-joining-forces Applications of artificial intelligence, https: // en.wikipedia.org / wiki / Applications _ of _ artificial _ intelligence
Artificial Intelligence Industry – An Overview by Segment, https://emerj.com/ai-sector-overviews/artificial-intelligence-industry-an-overview-by-segment/
30. Ray Kurzweil, Singularity is near, 2005; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Singularity_Is_Near
32. Mario Raich, Dave Ulrich, Simon Dolan, Claudio Cisullo, Insights into the transformation of business in the Cyber-Age The European Business Review – March-April 2018, pp. 16-17 https://www.europeanbusinessreview.com/insights – into – the – transformation – of – business – in – the – cyber – age/
33. Dolan S.L. (2011) Coaching by values: A guide to success in the life of business and the business of life. iUniverse; Dolan S.L. Garcia S.l. Richley B., (2006) Managing by Values: Corporate Guide to living, being alive and making a living in the 21st century; Palgrave-MacMillan.
34. Cognitive technologies: The real opportunities for business Deloitte Review Issue 16
David Schatsky, Craig Muraskin, Ragu Gurumurthy, January 26, 2015 https://www2.deloitte.com/insights/us/en/deloitte-review/issue-16/cognitive-technologies-business-applications.html
35. Michael I. Jordan, Artificial Intelligence — The Revolution Hasn’t Happened Yet, https: // medium.com / @mijordan3 / artificia l – intelligence – the – revolution – hasnt – happened – yet – 5e1d5812e1e7
36. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND LIFE IN 2030, https://ai100.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/ai_100_report_0831fnl.pdf
37. Worldwide AI consciousness may replace human speech, https://nypost.com/2018/02/16/worldwide-ai-consciousness-may-replace-human-speech/
38. Martin Giles, Artificial intelligence is often overhyped—and here’s why that’s dangerous, https://www.technologyreview.com/s/612072/artificial – intelligence – is – often-overhypedand-heres-why-thats-dangerous/
39. Assaf Baciu, Artificial Intelligence Is More Artificial Than Intelligent, https://www.wired.com/2016/12/artificial-intelligence-artificial-intelligent/Assaf. Baciu is co-founder and senior vice president of Persado, a cognitive content-generation company in New York.
40. Richard Gall, Why We Should Stop Conflating Human and Machine Intelligence, https://singularityhub.com/2018/10/19/why – we – should – stop – conflating – human – and-machine-intelligence/
41. To name just a few: anger, curiosity, desire, empathy, happiness, hatred, hope, jealousy, love, passion, pride, sadness, shame, surprise. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emotion
42. Ted Chu,Human Purpose and Transhuman Potential: A Cosmic Vision of Our Future Evolution, 2014
43. Raya Bidshahri, What Is It That Makes Humans Unique? Dec 28, 2017 https://singularityhub.com/2017/12/28/what-is-it-that-makes-humans-unique/
44. Edelman, G.M. (2004), Wider Than the Sky: The Phenomenal Gift of Consciousness
45. How to Reach Your Higher Consciousness One Step at a Time, https://medium.com/mindvalley/how-to-reach-your-higher-consciousness-one-step-at-a-time-651fe9d62e94
46. Higher consciousness, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Higher_consciousness
47. ‘Happiness Tech’ Is On the Rise. Is It Working? Raya Bidshahri, Sep 02, 2018
48. Roddy Millar, Neuroscience for Business Impact, 06 September 2018
49. Daniel Faggella, Enterprise Adoption of Artificial Intelligence – When it Does and Doesn’t Make Sense, https://emerj.com/ai-executive-guides/enterprise-adoption-of-artificial-intelligence/?utm_term=&utm_medium=enterprise-adoption-of-artificial-intelligence&utm_campaign=General-Autoresponder-Email-2&utm_source=email&utm_content=&_ke=eyJrbF9lbWFpbCI6ICJtYXJpb0BlbWVyaXRhY2FkZW15LmNvbSIsICJrbF9jb21wYW55X2lkIjogIk1qeFpxZyJ9
50. Collaborative intelligence, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collaborative_intelligence
Christopher Isak, What is Collaborative Intelligence? https://techacute.com/what – is – collaborative – intelligence/
51. Erwin Dijkstra, Katinka Dijkstra, Towards a human/AI co-creation in the digital world, https://atos.net/en/blog/towards-humanai-co-creation-digital-world
56. Dave Damer, Collaborative intelligence is the future of work, https://www.itproportal.com/features/collaborative-intelligence-is-the-future-of-work/
Geoff Mulgan, Collective intelligence will change our world, https://www.morningfuture.com / en /article/2018/09/05/geoff-mulgan-ceo-nesta-ai-collective-intelligence-social-innovation/407/
57. Lisa Kay Solomon, How Can Leaders Ensure Humanity in a World of Thinking Machines?https://singularityhub.com/2019/01/09/how-can-leaders-ensure-humanity-in-a-world-of-thinking-machines/
Olaf Groth, Mark Nitzberg, Solomon’s Code: Humanity in a World of Thinking Machines, 2018
58. Lisa Kay Solomon, ibid
59. Dom Galeon, Peter Diamandis Thinks We’re Evolving Toward “Meta-Intelligence”, https://futurism.com/peter-diamandis-thinks-were-evolving-toward-meta-intelligence
Ulrich Lichtenthaler, (2018) “Beyond artificial intelligence: why companies need to go the extra step” Journal of Business Strategy, https://doi.org/10.1108/JBS-05-2018-0086
Abinash Tripathy, Why Humans Need To Find Symbiosis With AI, Jan 29, 2018 https://www.forbes.com/sites/forbestechcouncil/2018/01/29/why- humans – need – to – find – symbiosis-with-ai/#
60. Jody Medich, Making Superhumans Through Radical Inclusion and Cognitive Ergonomics, https: // singularityhub.com / 2019 / 01 / 10 /making – superhumans – through – radical – inclusion – and – cognitive – ergonomics/
61. We consider as “Cyber-Entities” AI enabled systems, platforms, machines, devices and entities
62. The “understanding” of key concepts and principles is contextual and requires new definition or description every time the context in which they are used changes. In addition, we need to understand that the key concepts and principles themselves are also drivers for the change and transformation of contexts.
63. Alex Davies, The WIRED Guide to Self-Driving Cars, https://www.wired.com/story/guide-self-driving-cars/
The Self-Driving Car Timeline – Predictions from the Top 11 Global Automakers
Last updated on December 21, 2018, published by Jon Walker, https://emerj.com/ai-adoption-timelines/self-driving-car-timeline-themselves-top-11-automakers/
64. Matt Turck, Frontier AI: How far are we from artificial “general” intelligence, really?
65. Stephen Johnson, Human-like A.I. will emerge in 5 to 10 years, say experts. A survey conducted at the Joint Multi-Conference on Human-Level Artificial Intelligence shows that 37% of respondents believe human-like artificial intelligence will be achieved within five to 10 years.
66. Cameron McLain, Can Artificial Intelligence Be Conscious? https://medium.com/hummingbird-ventures/can-artificial-intelligence-be-conscious-e316c2ac4769
67. Peter Rudin, What happens when Artificial equals Human Intelligence?
68. Matt Ridely, Artificial intelligence will be a symbiosis, not a replacement