Agrigenomics, also known as agricultural genomics, is the application of genomics in agriculture. It has and will continue to promote sustainable production and provide solutions to the growing problems associated with feeding the world’s population. Farmers, breeders, and researchers can quickly locate the genetic markers connected to desirable features using contemporary technologies to inform cultivation and breeding decisions.
What is the principle behind agrigenomics?
Farmers and breeders worldwide, particularly in industrialized nations, are implementing genomics to improve and hasten the processes of plant and animal breeding in cattle farming and other food crops. By examining these plants, farmers and researchers can gain more knowledge about the genes that affect growth rate, the characteristics of the seeds and fruits, and sensitivity to climatic change and disease agents.
By reducing the number of experiments and failures, agrigenomics has the potential to advance scientific discovery and increase the quality of agricultural crop harvests. Crop breeding advances by creating hybrids with the finest attributes by linking phenotypes to genes or gene signatures. To uncover desirable traits, scientists use genetic data, which they then transfer to another organism.
Scientists are studying how genomics may improve the quality and quantity of agricultural produce. Scientists might, for instance, use desirable characteristics to create a new product or enhance an existing one, like making a crop that is susceptible to drought more tolerant of it during the dry season.
Researchers can choose and introduce genes, for instance, to promote disease or drought resistance, help plants adapt to high salinity soil, and enhance the flavor, texture, or appearance of fruit, vegetables, and meat using the information gained from genomics research. The information may include genotyping, exome, transcriptome, and genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The same approaches are used with fish populations to boost commercial viability, address issues with contemporary fish farming, and safeguard endangered species.
Since the environment has necessitated the production of higher-yield crops, researchers can develop plants resistant to particular diseases, especially if they can identify the genes that control which diseases.
Some benefits of agrigenomics
- Enhance and develop crops more tolerant to pests, diseases, drought, cold, floods, and other environmental factors that can affect their growth.
- To create more nutrient-dense foods and grow a massive amount of food in a small space.
- To create a healthy herd of cattle that are disease-resistant and high-quality. The exact prediction of genetic merit, the fine-tuning of selective breeding, the augmentation of desired traits, and the improvement of animal welfare are all made possible with genomics.
- Aquatic species can grow more quickly, have better disease resistance, and have higher stress tolerance thanks to genomics, which is advantageous for aquaculture. Aquaculture provides vital, high-quality protein to feed the world’s population.
Agricultural researchers who want to comprehend the complex genomes of crops or livestock can benefit from next-generation sequencing (NGS). They can use it to create a reference genome sequence from which to develop future tools for analyzing genetic traits in these plants and animals. The creation of crops with promising agronomic features may advance thanks to genomic advancements.